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HR031 – Neue Burg – Hamburg – Closing Time

Neue Burg die Vierte! Wie versprochen, hat das Hafenradio Kay Suchowa nochmal zum Ende der archäologischen Ausgrabung in der Hamburger Neustadt in der Straße „Neue Burg“ besucht. Und es gibt wieder spannendes zu berichten!

Der Grabungsleiter mit der Illustration einer möglichen Torkonstruktion der Neuen Burg in den Händen.
Illustration einer möglichen Torkonstruktion der Neuen Burg

Wir haben es am vorletzten Grabungstag, quasi „auf den letzten Drücker“, nochmal in die „Neue Burg“-Straße in die Hamburger Neustadt geschafft, um zu berichten was die Ausgrabung an Einblicken in Hamburgs frühe Vergangenheit preisgeben konnte. Wallanlage, Deichbau, Tor und Oberkante – so könnte man es verkürzt auf den Punkt bringen. Tatsächlich konnten wieder zahlreiche gut erhaltene Befunde der Wallanlage der neuen Burg freigelegt und untersucht werden. Dort wo es der Archäologe und Grabungsleiter Kay Suchowa vermutet hat, kam tatsächlich eine Toranlage zum Vorschein, die in großen Teilen gut dokumentiert werden konnte und eine echte kleine Sensation ist. Vielleicht etwas weniger spektakulär, aber wissenschaftlich sehr wertvoll, ist die Tatsache, dass die Oberkante des Walls sicher dokumentiert werden konnte, was auch weitere Rückschlüsse auf Größe und Konstruktion zulässt. Besonders interessant waren auch die Hinweise eines Deichbauers, der Kay auf der Ausgrabung besuchte. Sie lieferten entscheidende Hinweise um zu klären, warum auf der Aussenseite des Walls viel weniger Holz verbaut wurde als im inneren Bereich.

Kay Suchowa erklärt das Profil der Innenseite des Walls
Kay Suchowa erklärt das Profil der Innenseite des Walls

Warum ist die Neue Burg so wichtig für Hamburg? Nun – sie ist der Grundstein für das was Hamburg bis heute zu einer bedeutenden europäischen Handelsmetropole macht. Mit ihr begann der Aufstieg Hamburgs als Hansestadt. Die Neue Burg war im 11. Jahrhundert sogar die größte Burganlage Norddeutschlands und wurde vom Billunger-Herzog Bernhard II. ab 1021 errichtet.
Nochmal zum Hintergrund der Ausgrabung: Die Ausgrabungsfläche liegt in einem Gebiet, das quasi als Keimzelle der 1188 gegründeten Hamburger Neustadt gilt. Unmittelbar unter dem Pflaster der heutigen Straße „Neue Burg“ befinden sich, vom Krieg und dem nachfolgenden Bauboom weitgehend ungestörte, Befunde der mittelalterlichen und neuzeitlichen Bebauung. Für eine Ausgrabung in der dichtbesiedelten Innenstadt war diesmal die Situation auch eine besondere – es handelte sich um eine geplante Grabung, die nicht durch Bauarbeiten notwendig wurde, sondern an einer vielversprechenden, exponierten Stelle durchgeführt werden konnte. Gestartet wurde im November 2019 und Grabungsende war im September 2020.

Grabungsbefund eines Teils der Torkonstruktion

Diese Ausgrabung konnte auch einmal mehr belegen, dass Hamburg eine Stadt ist, die in ihrer Geschichte immer von Austausch und Migration geprägt war. Neue Impulse, Ideen, Technologien, Weltanschauungen und Kulturen offen aufzunehmen, das ist es, was Hamburg von jeher erfolgreich gemacht hat.
Damit können wir eine kleine, aber unglaublich spannende Serie von Berichten der Erforschung der „Neuen Burg“ im Herzen der Hansestadt abschließen – die Links auf die vorausgegangenen Episoden findet ihr in den Shownotes. An dieser Stelle auch nochmal ein ganz großes Dankeschön an Kay Suchowa, der sich immer die Zeit genommen hat dem Hafenradio so wunderbar die tiefen Einblicke in Hamburgs Vergangenheit zu erklären. Vielleicht ergeben sich in Zukunft ja noch weitere Grabungsmaßnahmen, aber vorerst mal: Closing Time!

Links zu den Themen
Neue Burg – Hamburg, Webstory Mythos Hammaburg, Bernhard II, Billunger, Hopfenmarkt, Trostbrücke, HR027, HR016, HR004


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